toefl-icon-2 
toefl-icon-1 

TOEFL Listening Practice
Download Listening Practice

Files or Watch Them Online
For Free! - NOW
LearnEnglish-Test.com


                          TestTOEFL

TOEFL Speaking PRactice 

TOEFL Speaking Practice
Dowanlod Speaking Sample

Files With Audioscript
PDF & MP3 Files.
LearnEnglish-Test.com


                          TestTOEFL

TOEFL Writing Skill 5: Write Unified Supporting Paragraphs

A good way to begin writing effective supporting paragraphs in an integrated writing task is to study your notes carefully before you begin to write. Then, as you write, you should think about organizing and supporting each paragraph by introducing the main idea of each paragraph, supporting the main idea with adequate details, and connecting the ideas together in a unified paragraph (using cohesive techniques such as repeated key words, rephrased key ideas, pronouns and determiners for reference, and transition expressions).

The following chart outlines the key information that you should remember about writing unified supporting paragraphs.

WRITING  UNIFIED  SUPPORTING  PARAGRAPHS
ORGANIZATION
Each supporting paragraph should include a sentence with the main idea of the paragraph and several sentences with supporting ideas.
 
COHESION
To make a supporting paragraph cohesive, you should use a variety of techniques, such as repeated and rephrased key ideas, pronouns and determiners, and transition expressions.
 


Look at the notes on the reading passage on hindcasting and the supporting paragraph that is based on the notes.

Topic Of Reading Passage: hindcasting (trying to determine what weather was like in the past) 

main points about hindcasting:

  • detailed weather records kept for less than a century
  • proxies (information from various other fields) used to hindcast weather

The reading passage discusses the technique of hindcasting, which is a method used by meteorologists to try to determine what the weather was like in the past. One point that is made about this meteorological metho is that detailed weather records have not been kept for long. As a result, meteorologists have had to find another way to determine what the weather was like in the past. They developed a method of hindcasting using proxies, which are pieces of information from other fields.

As you read the supporting paragraph on the reading passage, you should note that the first sentence of the paragraph is a topic sentence that indicates that the reading passage is about a certain method, and the rest of the sentences are details about the method. You should also note the techniques that have been used to make the paragraph cohesive. The word hindcasting is an example of a repeated key word, the phrase meteorological method is a rephrasing of the key idea hindcasting, the phrase As a result is a transition expression, and the word They is a pronoun that refers back to meteorologists.

Now look at the notes on the listening passage on seventeenth-century weather and the supporting paragraph that is based on the notes.

Topic Of Listening Passage: paintings that are proxies showing weather in 17th-century Holland colder than today

details in 17th-century paintings showing colder weather:

  • huge snow drifts higher than today's drifts
  • skaters on canals that are not frozen today

The listening passage provides an example of a situation where hindcasting was used. This situation involves paintings that are proxies showing that the weather in 17th-century Holland was colder than it is today. There were many details in the 17th-century paintings that showed how frigid the weather was.  For instance , there were huge snow drifts that were higher than today's snow drifts, and there were skaters skating on canals that are not frozen today.

As you read the supporting paragraph on the reading passage, you should note that the first sentence of the paragraph is a topic sentence that indicates that the reading passage is about a certain method and that the rest of the sentences are details about the method. You should also note the techniques that have been used to make the paragraph cohesive. The word situation is an example of a repeated key word, the word This is a determiner that refers back to the previous situation, the word frigid is a rephrasing of the key idea colder, and the phrase For instance is a transition expression that shows that an example will follow.